Freshwater sites

Freshwater site protocols

The physical and chemical freshwater protocols are carried out all year round. They are:

  • Chemistry
  • Surface Water Discharge

The freshwater biological protocols are carried out at varying times as as shown below.

April, July & October

Physical and chemical protocols +  Invertebrates, Diatoms

April, June & September

Physical and chemical protocols + Diatoms


Of the now discontinued freshwater protocols, phytoplankton and zooplankton were monitored all year, whilst macrophytes were recorded in August.


  • The ECN physical and chemical protocols are made all year round. They are:

    • Automatic & manual meteorology
    • Precipitation chemistry
    • Soil solution chemistry
    • Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide
    • Atmospheric ammonia
  • The ECN biological protocols are conducted at varying times during the year, as shown in the calendar. The bird transect is walked twice during the period April to June and the grazer protocol is performed in April, July and September.

  • Due to funding constraints,  some sites no longer carry out all these measurements and some sites have had to reduce the frequency at which certain protocols are carried out

  • Schedules may vary a little from site-to-site.